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Joseph Stalin on Kemalism. May 13, 1927


Sixth Question

“Is a Kemalist revolution possible in China?”

I consider it improbable in China, and therefore impossible. A Kemalist revolution is possible only in countries like Turkey, Persia or Afghanistan, where there is no industrial proletariat, or practically none, and where there is no powerful agrarian-peasant revolution. A Kemalist revolution is a revolution of the top stratum, a revolution of the national merchant bourgeoisie, arising in a struggle against the foreign imperialists, and whose subsequent development is essentially directed against the peasants and workers, against the very possibility of an agrarian revolution.

A Kemalist revolution is impossible in China because :

  1. a) there is in China a certain minimum of militant and active industrial proletariat, which enjoys enormous prestige among the peasants;
  2. b) there is in that country a developed agrarian revolution which in its advance is sweeping away the survivals of feudalism.

The vast mass of the peasantry, which in a number of provinces has already been seizing the land, and which is led in its struggle by the revolutionary proletariat of China—that is the antidote against the possibility of what is called a Kemalist revolution.

The Kemalist Party cannot be put on a par with the Left Kuomintang party in Wuhan, just as Turkey cannot be put on a par with China. Turkey has no such centres as Shanghai, Wuhan, Nanking, Tientsin, etc. Ankara falls far short of Wuhan, just as the Kemalist Party falls far short of the Left Kuomintang.

One should also bear in mind the difference between China and Turkey as regards their international position. In relation to Turkey, imperialism has already secured a number of its principal demands, having wrested from it Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia and other points of importance to the imperialists. Turkey has now been reduced to the dimensions of a small country with a population of some ten to twelve million. It does not represent for imperialism a market of any importance or a decisive field of investment. One of the reasons why this has happened is that the old Turkey was an agglomeration of nationalities, with a compact Turkish population only in Anatolia.

Not so with China. China is a nationally compact country with a population of several hundred million, and constitutes one of the most important markets and fields for capital export in the world. Whereas in Turkey imperialism could content itself with severing from it a number of very important regions in the East, exploiting the national antagonisms between the Turks and the Arabs within the old Turkey, in China imperialism has to strike at the living body of national China, cutting it to pieces and severing whole provinces from it, in order to preserve its old positions, or at least to retain some of them.

Consequently, whereas in Turkey the struggle against imperialism could end with a curtailed anti-imperialist revolution on the part of the Kemalists, in China the struggle against imperialism is bound to assume a profoundly popular and distinctly national character and is bound to deepen step by step, developing into desperate clashes with imperialism and shaking the very foundations of imperialism throughout the world.

One of the gravest errors of the opposition (Zinoviev, Radek, Trotsky) is that it fails to perceive this profound difference between Turkey and China, confuses the Kemalist revolution with an agrarian revolution, and lumps everything indiscriminately into one heap.

I know that among the Chinese nationalists there are people who cherish Kemalist ideas. There are pretenders in plenty to the role of a Kemal in China today. The chief among them is Chiang Kai-shek. I know that some Japanese journalists are inclined to regard Chiang Kai-shek as a Chinese Kemal. But that is all a dream, the illusion of frightened bourgeois. In China victory must go either to Chinese Mussolinis like Chang Tso-lin and Chang Tsung-chang, only for them to be overthrown later by the sweep of the agrarian revolution, or to Wuhan.

Chiang Kai-shek and his followers, who are trying to hold a middle position between these two camps, are inevitably bound to fall and share the fate of Chang Tso-lin and Chang Tsung-chang.

  1. V. Stalin

Talk with Students of the Sun Yat-Sen University

May 13, 1927




Mao Zedung on Kemalism. January 1940


Even though the petty Kemalist dictatorship of the bourgeoisie [9] did emerge in Turkey after the first imperialist world war and the October Revolution owing to certain specific conditions (the bourgeoisie’s success in repelling Greek aggression and the weakness of the proletariat), there can be no second Turkey, much less a “Turkey” with a population of 450 million, after World War II and the accomplishment of socialist construction in the Soviet Union. In the specific conditions of China (the flabbiness of the bourgeoisie with its proneness to conciliation and the strength of the proletariat with its revolutionary thoroughness), things just never work out so easily as in Turkey. Did not some members of the Chinese bourgeoisie clamour for Kemalism after the First Great Revolution failed in 1927? But where is China’s Kemal? And where are China’s bourgeois dictatorship and capitalist society? Besides, even Kemalist Turkey eventually had to throw herself into the arms of Anglo-French imperialism, becoming more and more of a semi-colony and part of the reactionary imperialist world. In the international situation of today, the “heroes”‘ in the colonies and semi-colonies either line up on the imperialist front and become part of the forces of world counter-revolution, or they line up on the anti-imperialist front and become part of the forces of world revolution. They must do one or the other, for there is no third choice.

Judging by the domestic situation, too, the Chinese bourgeoisie should have learned its lesson by now. No sooner had the strength of the proletariat and of the peasant and other petty bourgeois masses brought the revolution of 1927 to victory than the capitalist class, headed by the big bourgeoisie, kicked the masses aside, seized the fruits of the revolution, formed a counter-revolutionary alliance with imperialism and the feudal forces, and strained themselves to the limit in a war of “Communist suppression” for ten years. But what was the upshot? Today, when a powerful enemy has penetrated deep into our territory and the anti-Japanese war has been going on for two years, is it possible that there are still people who want to copy the obsolete recipes of the European and American bourgeoisie? A decade was spent on “suppressing the Communists” out of existence, but no capitalist society under bourgeois dictatorship was “suppressed” into existence. Is it possible that there are still people who want to have another try? True, a “one-party dictatorship” was “suppressed” into existence through the decade of “Communist suppression”, but it is a semi-colonial and semi-feudal dictatorship. What is more, at the end of four years of “Communist suppression” (from 1927 to the Incident of September 18, 1931), “Manchukuo” was “suppressed” into existence and in 1937, after another six years of such “suppression”, the Japanese imperialists made their way into China south of the Great Wall. Today if anyone wants to carry on “suppression” for another decade, it would mean a new type of “Communist suppression”, somewhat different from the old. But is there not one fleet-footed person who has already outstripped everyone else and boldly undertaken this new enterprise of “Communist suppression”? Yes, Wang Ching-wei, who has become the new-style anti-Communist celebrity. Anyone who wishes to join his gang can please himself; but wouldn’t that turn out to be an added embarrassment when talking big about bourgeois dictatorship, capitalist society, Kemalism, a modern state, a one-party dictatorship, “one doctrine”, and so on and so forth? And if, instead of joining the Wang Ching-wei gang, someone wants to come into the “fight Japan” camp of the people but imagines that once the war is won he will be able to kick aside the people fighting Japan, seize the fruits of the victory of the fight against Japan and establish a “perpetual one-party dictatorship”, isn’t he just daydreaming? “Fight Japan!” “Fight Japan!” But who is doing the fighting? Without the workers and the peasants and other sections of the petty bourgeoisie, you cannot move a step. Anyone who still dares to try and kick them aside will himself be crushed. Hasn’t this, too, become a matter of common sense? But the die-hards among the Chinese bourgeoisie (I am referring solely to the die-hards) seem to have learned nothing in the past twenty years. Aren’t they still shouting: “Restrict communism”, “Corrode communism” and “Combat communism”? Haven’t we seen “Measures for Restricting the Activities of Alien Parties” followed by “Measures for Dealing with the Alien Party Problem” and still later by “Directives for Dealing with the Alien Party Problem”? Heavens! With all this “restricting” and “dealing with” going on, one wonders what kind of future they are preparing for our nation and for themselves! We earnestly and sincerely advise these gentlemen: Open your eyes, take a good look at China and the world, see how things stand inside as well as outside the country, and do not repeat your mistakes. If you persist in your mistakes, the future of our nation will of course be disastrous, but I am sure things will not go well with you either. This is absolutely true, absolutely certain. Unless the die-hards among the Chinese bourgeoisie wake up, their future will be far from bright–they will only bring about their own destruction. Therefore we hope that China’s anti-Japanese united front will be maintained and that, with the cooperation of all instead of the monopoly of a single clique, the anti-Japanese cause will be brought to victory; it is the only good policy– any other policy is bad. This is the sincere advice we Communists are giving, and do not blame us for not having forewarned you.


Moreover, the “one doctrine” theory is an absurdity. So long as classes exist, there will be as many doctrines as there are classes, and even various groups in the same class may have their different doctrines. Since the feudal class has a feudal doctrine, the bourgeoisie a capitalist doctrine, the Buddhists Buddhism, the Christians Christianity and the peasants polytheism, and since in recent years, some people have also advocated Kemalism, fascism, vitalism,[13] the “doctrine of distribution according to labour”,[14] and what not, why then cannot the proletariat have its communism? Since there are countless “isms”, why should the cry of “Fold it up !” be raised at the sight of communism alone? Frankly, “folding it up” will not work. Let us rather have a contest. If communism is beaten, we Communists will admit defeat in good grace. But if not, then let all that stuff about “one doctrine”, which violates the Principle of Democracy, be “folded up” as soon as possible.


  1. After World War I the British imperialists instigated their vassal Greece to commit aggression against Turkey, but the Turkish people, with the help of the Soviet Union, defeated the Greek troops in 1922. In 1923, Kemal was elected President of Turkey. Stalin said:

A Kemalist revolution is a revolution of the top stratum, a revolution of the national merchant bourgeoisie, arising in a struggle against the foreign imperialists, and whose subsequent development is essentially directed against the peasants and workers, against the very possibility of an agrarian revolution. (“Talk with Students of the Sun Yat-sen University”, Works, Eng. ed., FLPH Moscow, 1954, Vol. IX, p. 261.)

  1. Vitalism was an exposition of Kuomintang fascism, a hotchpotch ghostwritten by a number of reactionary hacks for Chen Li-fu, one of the notorious chiefs of Chiang Kai-shek’s secret service.
  2. The “doctrine of distribution according to labour” was a high-sounding slogan shamelessly put forward by Yen Hsi-shan, warlord and representative of the big landlords and big compradors in Shansi Province.




Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung


January 1940




Altaic-Uralic Languages


Cooperation between the states of speakers of 53 groups of Altaic-Uralic Languages in Asia and Europe has to be developed. It is a great map of language interactions.

Greater China Business Strategy


China Business Strategy

Traveller’s Photos: Shanghai and Coastal China
Traveller’s Talk: Eastern Coast of China. Shanghai and around.
Traveller’s Talk: Center of China Civilisation. Heathland.
Traveller’s Photos: South China. Canton Province.
Traveller’s Talk: South of China. Canton and Pearl River Delta.
Traveller’s Talks: Strategy for China Business
Traveller’s Photos: China in 1987
Traveller’s Beijing, China in 1987

Hong Kong Business Strategy

Traveller’s Talk: Strategy for Business Success in Hong Kong
Traveller’s Talk: Businessman Mr Ng of Hong Kong and Business Strategy
Traveller’s Talk: Alibaba Vision of Jack Ma.
Traveller’s Photos: Hong Kong Memorials
Traveller’s Talk: Hong Kong Memorial Friends
Traveller’s Talk: Hong Kong Memories
Traveller’s Photos: Hong Kong
Traveller’s Talk: An Expatriate in Hong Kong 1987-2001

Taiwan Business Strategy

Traveller’s Photos: Asian Tiger Taiwan.
Traveller’s Talk: Taiwan’s Business Strategy

Export Barter


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Kül-Tegin monument. Turkic Khaganate and research of the First Czechoslovak- Mongolian expedition in Khöshöö Tsaidam 1958


Kül-Tegin monument. Turkic Khaganate and research of the First Czechoslovak- Mongolian expedition in Khöshöö Tsaidam 1958Abstract 

This thesis has been elaborated on the basis of research of the first Czechoslovak-Mongolian expedition, the pioneer and solitary foreign project of Czech archaeology, unsurpassed up to now. The current work attempted to enclose the research in honour of PhDr. Lumír Jisl and his unfinished but extremely valuable project, whose results are to be presented here, The following text is based mostly on materials collected from archives and depositories both in Czech Republic and Mongolia and available results of present Turkological studies. Regarding current state of researches the aim of this work is rather to formulate fundamental questions based on the research results, suggest some possible partial solutions and open space for further investigations than to proclaim some fixed statements.

I. Part – Thesis text 

1. Introduction 

1.1. History of the First Czechoslovak- Mongolian expedition 1958 1.2. Tasks and issues of research 1.3. Sources and methods of research 1.3.1. Archive and museum materials 1.3.2. Study on the research 1.3.3. Fieldwork

2. Specification of the locality

2.1. Khöshöö Tsaidam – a brief introduction to the topic 2.2. The Orkhon valley 2.2.1. Natural conditions of the Orkhon Valley 2.2.2. Notes on Geology 2.2.3. Notes on Pedology 2.2.4. Grazing conditions 2.3. Historical background of the Orkhon Valley 2.3.1. The city of Kharabalgasun 2.3.2. The city of Karakorum 2.3.3. Orkhon Valley as the seat of Early Medieval nomadic empires 2.4. The Orkhon valley in the light of current research 2.5. History of Turkic studies in Orkhon valley 2.5.1. Khöshöö-Tsaidam 2.5.2. The research of Kül-Tegin monument The entrance part Stone turtle and stela Processional path The central shrine The sacrificial stone 2.5.3. The research of Bilgä-Khan monument 2.6. Questions of Turkological studies 8

3. Kül-Tegin monument A mirror of historical and social events inside the Second Eastern Turkic khaganate

3.1. Brief introduction into the history of Turkic Khaganates 3.2. Runic inscriptions – propaganda tools 3.3. “Genesis” and ethnogenesis of Turkic tribes 3.3.1. General questions of the ethnogenesis of Central Asia steppe nomads “Altaic cultural matrix? “ 3.3.2. Questions of “Ethnicity” of the Inner Asia nomads Ethnicity versus political unity Ethnicity versus cultural unity The Mongols as the model of formation of a nomadic empire 3.3.3. Divergence of Turkic cultures in the Central and Eastern Asia Ethnogenesis Note on linguistic background Divergence background Archaeological aspects of the supposed migrations in the Altai region Turkic Khaganate as a model of nomadic expansion 3.3.4. The Göktürks and Ashina phenomenon – Story and History Origins of Ashina Legends as the mirror of history I The Myth, symbols and signs – “Wolves, deers and goats” 3.4. Politics 3.4.1. Foreign politics Khöshöö Tsaidam conception – mirror of relations with the Tang Dynasty 3.4.2. Internal politics Tonyukuk´s affair 3.5. Some questions on Turkic funeral rite 3.5.1. The “Altaic cultural matrix”again 3.5.2. The Turkic funeral customs in Chinese written sources 3.5.3. Turkic commemorative monuments – the memorials 3.5.4. Portrayal of the dead 3.5.5. Was Kül-Tegin buried or not? 3.5.6. Funeral affiliation – Ashina? 3.5.7. Legends in the mirror of history II 9 3.6. Pottery and roof tiles 3.6.1. Stamped pottery. The “Orkhon vases”. 3.6.2. Pottery / roof tile subgroup 3.6.3. Pottery context and dating 3.6.4. Pottery and building materials as possible indicia of the settlement 3.6.5. Role of the pottery in nomadic environment

4. Conclusions 

4.1. Ethno-cultural context in the nomadic environment 4.2.Archaeological context in the nomadic environment 4.2.1. Settlement context in the steppe 4.2.2. Funeral context in the steppe 4.2.3. Notes on pottery 5. Summary 6. List of figures and literature

II. Part – Attachments 

7. Catalogues of finds 

7.1. List of finds 7.2. Pottery 7.3. Roofing materials 7.4. Building materials 7.5. Sculptures

8. Excavation materials of Kül-Tegin monument 1958

8.1. GPS measurement 8.2. Preliminary report of Dr. L. Jisl – translation 8.3.List of figures

9. DVD attachments 

– Archive documentation 1958_ ARU CAS Prague 9.1. Photodocumentation 9. 2. Plans 9.3. List of photodocumenation

TURKISH HEN: Country Layer Hen






                 LAYER HEN

               KÖY TAVUĞU

Those who are  looking for natural taste and need to have true taste of baked chicken, meet the chickens raised on mountain pastures by means of TURKISH HEN.

Lezzeti arayan ve  tandır tadında tavuk yemek isteyen tüketiciler, artık TURKISH HEN köy tavukları ile tanışıyor 

Good old natural flavor of hen comes back….

We’re all longing for the flavor of good old country hens that the smell once delightfully twisted our minds.

Big, charming country hens fed naturally in open air instead of those bred with artificial bait in poultry factories…

Consumers favoring the taste and wanting to enjoy the relish of tandoour, now try TURKISH Pasture hens.

Don’t get sad, thinking: “the period of delicious country hen is long over and here we’re condemned to machine pullets”

For the first time in Turkey, TURKISH HEN is collecting hens brought up in their natural environment for real in villages and presenting them to the taste of country hen connoisseurs, living in big cities.


Hen is healthy food; but what about those farm chickens we’re eating?

People favour hen more and more all around the world. Kitchens turned into a chicken’s empire after it was definitely understood how meat compels our body. Turkey could only consume 3 kg. poultry per capita yearly on the average in 1990’s, while European Union countries had annual figures as high as 21 kg. at the same period. This amount rose up to 12 kg. in recent years. Actually, 700-800 thousand tons of farm chicken is consumed in Turkey each year. As for the consumption of hens brought up in natural environment, that is, in villages, the most optimistic estimations cannot go beyond 50 thousand tons roughly per year…

On the other hand, farm chickens are bred only with artificial foodstuff in warehouses with no daylight at all and in a literally packed out environment in most poultry production farms instead of roaming at will in gardens with their funny walk as it is customary in villages.


Why Country Hen ?

Country hen attains a certain weight with natural feeding methods in 450 days at least -unlike chickens brought up in farms within 45 days- and by no means they’re butchered earlier.

Country hen is fed with natural foodstuff in a natural environment during all this period. The grass, grains and other food are very rich in minerals, protein and vitamins. Consequently, they’re much more delicious in comparison to poultry (farm chickens) fed with artificial bait.

You can easily understand whether the hen you bought was fed in natural conditions or with artificial substances. Country hens fed with natural methods retain a thick fat layer under their skin, as they walk around in open air. In addition, the solidity of their meat inevitably requires more time in cooking. The cooking time for farm chickens fed with artificial substances is very short instead.

Again, the color of the meat of these farm chickens fed with artificial bait quickly turns white, when boiled. Conversely, the countless minerals and nutrients that are contained in country hen’s meat, reflects fast on its color while cooking and congeals the bouillon and the meat at the same time.


A miracle food, Hen…

► Hen is a source of protein, minerals and vitamins. It gives strength and energy. Ancient physicians like Avicenna and Hippocrates would recommend hen as medicine for many illnesses. Poultry like hen, chicken or turkey are good sources of protein that are very valuable for human nutrition with their composition.

► An adult person requires roughly 72 gr. protein on a daily basis for an adequate and balanced nutrition. The amount of animal protein daily consumed per person doesn’t surpass 21-22 gr. in our country. This amount should be about 35 gr. to speak of a healthy, good-quality and balanced nutrition. There is a gap of animal protein in Turkey. Hen is the nearest prospect food that can play the leading role so that this gap could be filled up. Because, it contains nutrition materials in equal values with other sources of animal food. Hen is high in protein, namely 20.1% while beef and veal hold 19.7% and lamb 17.1%. This also shows it is good value for money.

► The fibers of hen meat are shorter than red meat so it can be digested more easily. Additionally, its unsaturated fatty acid rate is higher than red meat so that it ought to be preferred by heart and coronary disease patients.

► It is low in cholesterol, fat level and calories so that it is preferred by those wishing to remain fit.

► Hen meat contains the necessary amino acids required for developing healthy tissues as well as B2, B6 and B12 vitamins.

Comparative Nutritional Values Fat (g) Protein (g) Cholesterol (mg) Calories
Beef 16 18 92 219
Lamb 19 16 110 239
Hen 8 20 80 155

► Hen meat also contains iron that is necessary for the production of blood in the body and phosphorus that keeps body fluids neutral.

► Again, the substance called “Niacin” available in hen meat has cholesterol reducing effects and it supports effective working of nervous system.

► Calcium is another substance found in hen meat and it is vital for the coagulation of blood and necessary for contraction of heart and muscles as well as the effective functioning of enzymes and of nervous system. As for the ascorbic acid available in hen meat, it makes blood veins stronger.

► Yet again, zinc that is necessary for the memory and comprehension ability of the brain is available in hen meat. One portion of hen meat easily meets one third (1/3) of the daily iron and zinc requirement. Zinc strengthens the immune system and prevents bone loss in aged persons and it is equally significant for children at age of development.

► Hen meat is rich in potassium that deficiency results in complaints such as fatigue, constipation and leg cramps. Potassium that is found in meat is very important for cells, muscles and tissues. As known, cancer risk increases when one is deficient in potassium.

► Selenium that is also present in hen meat is reported to reduce cancer risk.



  • Whole Hen
  • Wing
  • Leg
  • Chest
  • Chicken Ground Meat-MDM (Mechanical Deboned Meat)
A mix of meat and skin
  • Chicken Chest Ground Meat-MDM

Fat Max. 25-26%

Calcium Ca Max = 0,03%

Contains no skin

  • Chicken Neck Ground Meat-MDM

Fat Max. 25-26%

Calcium Ca Max 0,03%

Contains no skin

  • Shocked Chicken Skin

Package: Packed, Shocked and Shrinked

  • Shocked Turkey Skin

Package: Packed, Shocked and Shrinked


Whole Hen

  • 12 pieces in corrugated box individually wrapped nylon packing.
  • 10 pieces in corrugated box individually wrapped nylon/plated packing.


  • Standard kg (10 kg or 20 kg) in corrugated and shrinked box


  • Standard kg (10 kg or 20 kg) in corrugated and shrinked box

How to Keep

  • Fresh Layer Hen; best before 5 days in +4C
  • Frozen Layer Hen Shock Frozen at-40C

         *Best before 1 year in –18C

*Best before 1 month in –12C

  • Best before 1 week in –6C
  • Keep in deep freeze. Defrost before cooking.
  • Do not refreeze after thawing.
  • Shocked& Packed Under Hygienic conditions with Veterinarian supervision



► The price label of hen usually displays its weight as well; this helps when deciding about the cooking way of hen.

► The skin of the hen should be light in color and wet. If the skin is soaked, the chances are that not enough care is shown when the hen is frozen.

► The yellow color of hen doesn’t necessarily indicate that it is good quality. A yellow hen isn’t always a hen fed with corn, it may be fed only with yellow color bait as well.

► The chest meat should be plump. Again, the end of the chest bone of young and tender chicken is supple.

► Young and tender hen are suitable for grill, brazier grill, frying pan or oven. Generally speaking, a hen is as much delicious as it is big. When growing, fat builds up right under the skin and at the fleshy tissue as well and this fat keeps the meat soft when cooked.


► However, one should be careful when buying a hen of 2 kg. or more as it may be old. Such old hens are called “hen for boiling” because their meat is tough.

► You can soften big hen by boiling. The bouillon that this simmering brings forth will make the essential ingredient of a delightful sauce.

► Hen may have various sizes. Accordingly, service measures would depend on your appetite and on other materials used.

► Pullets or young cocks are usually below 500 gr. and they are served to one person.

► Hen for frying or grilling are below 1,5 kg and they are suitable for two – for persons. They may be purchased in whole, in half or by piece.

► Hen above 1,5 kg. that you’ll cook in whole ought to be served to four persons at least.


Cleaning, Preparation and Protection

► Never freeze again an uncooked hen once it’s thawed. Don’t freeze hens that are stuffed. Because the ingredients inside won’t be frozen enough to prevent bacterial reproduction.

► The best way to thaw a hen is to leave it in refrigerator three hours for each 500 gr. You may put the hen into a plastic bag and leave it in a bowl full of cold water to diminish the time of thawing. Change the  water often while the hen gets thawed. In this manner, you can thaw a big hen between three to five hours.

► A frozen hen should be cooked within 12 hours after it’s thawed.

► Wash your hand both before and after touching an uncooked hen. The chopping wood, knife, kitchen robot and other kitchen material should be carefully washed under water before they’re used.

► Wrap the uncooked hen in a loose-fitting manner and let it wait in the refrigerator for two days at most.


► Fill the hen loosely or don’t fill at all. This way the heat would reach every part of the hen easily to kill all the bacteria.

► If you cook the hen accurately, it’ll be delicious and all its bacteria would die. The meat should easily run through a twin-tooth fork. Lift the hen a little to check whether it’s cooked or not; the fluid that pours should be clear.

► Don’t cook or heat hen in microwave ovens as some of microwave ovens cannot reach the temperature required.

► Don’t wash the hen before it’s cooked; only clean inside with a wet paper towel. If the hen is stuffed, take the moist over the skin as much as possible with a paper towel.

► The hen shouldn’t be let more than one hour at room temperature once it’s cooked. The hen that is loosely packed and put into refrigerator should be consumed within three days. The hen should be consumed within 24 hours, if it’s cooked with a heavy sauce or if it’s frozen.


The taste

► Knead the hen with lemon juice and leave in refrigerator for one night before frying, boiling or grilling hen. Your hen will be much more delicious the day after.

► You may alternatively marinate the hen one day earlier to make it softer and more delightful. To this end, mix an onion finely sliced with one tablespoon of vinegar, 3 tablespoons of vegetable oil and 1 clove of garlic beaten, salt, black pepper, rosemary or thyme. You may also add milk or yogurt instead of vinegar.


► It’s more nutritious to boil the hen with rice, potato, tomato and other seasonal green vegetables. Greenery and vegetables increase the nutritious value of the plate.

► If some dill is chopped and added into the hen bouillon, this soup will be helpful against rheumatism and joint pains in wet and misty winter days.


► For a different taste, add half a slice of orange or lemon with some sage leaves.

► Brush the skin of the hen with salted water when it’s about to be cooked so that it looks well-toasted.

► If you put some fresh herbs such as dill or parsley under the skin of your hen while it’s fried, you can get a delicious result without letting burn the herbs.



Hen makes a great fit in your Simple Six Eating Plan. 100 gram serving of white Hen meat has just three grams of fat-about 19 percent of the total calories- with a third of it coming from heart-healthy monounsaturated fat. To boot, Hen is a great source of Vitamin B6 that helps lower homocysteine levels (an artery-damaging substance in the blood), and a fabulous source of protein– a staggering 50 percent of the Daily Value in 100 gram serving.

According to several studies, Hen as part of  a low-fat diet aimed at lowering blood cholesterol levels works wonders. In a recent study, a group of people ate Hen daily or every other day in moderate amounts (100 gram as a serving) Blood cholesterol levels fell as expected with a diet low in fatty foods. Numerous studies show that Hen fits in well with diets designed to lower high blood pressure. In the now famous DASH study, blood pressure dropped in participants who ate a low-fat diet packed with fruits and vegetables which included moderate amounts of Hen.

Select either frozen or fresh Hen and use within three days if stored in the refrigerator. Hen keeps well frozen for about six months. Bake, microwave  or grill Hen. While cooked Hen skin may taste great, peel it off before eating to save on fat. You may even take the skin off before cooking, but this not save much in the way of fat and the skin does help keep the meat moist during baking. (Just remember to take the skin off before eating.) Frying Hen in oil is a no-no as this adds a significant amount of unwanted fat- even if you removed the fried outer batter and skin layer.




·        Purchase Hen by “cost per serving.” Consider how much wastage (bone, fat, gristle) there will be. In other words, how many edible servings can you get from one kg of Hen you are considering? Figuring the “cost per serving” will help you to get the most edible food at the lowest price.

  • Buy whole Hens rather than cut-up Hens if cut-up Hens are more expensive per kg.  (They normally are.) Cut them up yourself and save money.
  • Use Hen (if less expensive per edible serving than meat) at some meals.
  • Buy “family packs” of Hen if you can use that large a quantity and if it is cheaper per kg (which it usually is) than small packages. For example, a “family pack” containing a dozen Hen breasts should be cheaper per kg than a package of two breasts.
  • When you find Hen on sale at very good prices, buy several packages if the items are within your price range and if you have sufficient storage space. There should be little need to ever pay full price for these foods.


  • “Extend” or “stretch” Hen by using in casseroles, stews, soups, and other dishes. By making these items go a little further, you can cut back some on the purchases of them, which will save you money. These items are usually more expensive than vegetables, spaghetti, and most other foods you would normally use in casseroles, etc.
  • Put very small amounts of leifiover cooked vegetables, meat, Hen, and fish together in a container in the freezer. When you have accumulated enough food, make a soup, stew, or casserole. Saving even tiny bits of leifiovers is making use of every penny’s worth of your food.
  • Save leftover vegetable, meat, and Hen juices for possible later use. Refrigerate or freeze the juices, depending on how soon you plan to use them. Using these juices could save you money on your grocery bills. For example, saving Hen broth could save you the expense of buying canned broth.
  • When you have guests for meals at your home, stick to less expensive menus, for example, green beans rather than asparagus, a lettuce and tomato salad rather than a salad with mushrooms and avocados, a Hen casserole rather than T-bones, and an inexpensive dessert.


TURKISH HEN started to process country hen back in 2003. TURKISH HEN that initiated something that was unknown before in the sector, today has a butchering capacity of 100.000 units per day.

Country hen butchering is carried out at the latest technology TURKISH HEN facilities, located in TURKEY. Our purpose is to introduce a new  traditional taste that long remained only in memories to our people and also to export this valuable product to world markets providing foreign currency entry into the country.

TURKISH HEN is therefore the first and only company that carried out frozen country hen export from our country.

Today, our products reach every single corner of the world.

Our standards, our understanding of quality and service together with our approach that aims one hundred percent customer satisfaction takes us always further in world markets.



By Bilge Tonyukuk Enstitüsü zaman: Eylül 14, 2017